There are 3 main risk factors for congenital hearing loss:
- Genetic (inherited) factors account for ~50% of hearing loss present at birth (congenital) with autosomal recessive hearing loss accounting for the majority of these.
- Autosomal recessive hearing loss is inherited from both parents – often with no one else in the family having hearing loss, including the parents.
- Non-genetic factors (such as congenital cytomegalovirus infection) account for ~25% of congenital hearing loss.
- Other causes, such as severe prematurity, certain syndromes, or other risk factors, account for the remaining ~25%